Core decompression and bone marrow aspirate concentrate injection for Avascular Necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head: A scoping review

Published:November 11, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2021.101691

      Abstract

      Background

      Various joint preserving treatments are available for use in Avascular Necrosis of the femoral head. Most of these are effective in the pre-collapse stage of the disease. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of core decompression and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in various stages of AVN, in modifying the progression of the disease and the need for hip replacement.

      Material and methods

      The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews reporting guidelines were followed. The literature search was conducted from inception till 2nd May 2021, on the PUBMED, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar search engines, using “bone marrow aspirate concentrate osteonecrosis femur” and “bmac osteonecrosis femur” as the keywords. In all these studies, Core Decompression with Bone marrow Aspirate concentrate was performed. The evaluation was done based on the progression of osteonecrosis, improvement in functional outcomes and the conversion to total hip arthroplasty.

      Results

      We have analyzed 612 hips from11 studies, based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 38.27 years. There was a predominance of males. The grade of AVN ranged from grade 1 to 4. The average follow-up period of the cases ranged from 2 to 12 years (average: 4.38 years). The functional scores were improved in the majority of cases. Radiographic progression occurred in 23.5% of hips, and the Total Hip Arthroplasty was performed in 14.9% of hips.

      Conclusions

      Core decompression with Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate in pre-collapse stages of the disease is beneficial in improving the functions scores and for reducing the radiological progression of the disease and need for total hip arthroplasty, in the majority of cases.

      Keywords

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