Short-term outcomes of treatment in children presenting with DDH in walking age - An analysis of 84 hips

Published:November 21, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2021.101712

      Abstract

      Background

      Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH) presenting at walking age is not uncommon, particularly in developing countries. The available treatment modalities in this age group are closed reduction (CR), open reduction (OR), OR with additional femoral and/or pelvic osteotomy. This study was done in patients who presented between 12 and 36 months of age to assess the following: 1) Percentage of hips amenable for successful CR, 2) failure rate after CR and OR in walking age DDH and 3) the need for secondary procedures to address subluxation and residual dysplasia within first 2 years.

      Method

      ology: After IRB approval, the institutional database was searched for patients admitted with a diagnosis of DDH from January 2009 to January 2019. We identified 142 patients, of which 65 patients with 84 hips formed the study cohort after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic details, details of the interventions, brace wear, revision procedures and radiological data were collected from Hospital Information System. We divided the patients in three groups: Group I - CR, Group II –OR, and Group III - OR with an additional bony procedure in the form of femoral and/or pelvic osteotomy.

      Results

      The mean age at presentation was 20.1 months. We had 10 (11.9%) hips in group I, 39 (46.4%) hips in group II and 35 (41.6%) hips in group III. The mean follow-up was 44.8 months (24–132 months). In Group I, 5 (50%) had re-dislocation and 2 (20%) needed revision intervention for residual dysplasia. In Group II, 4 (10%) had re-dislocation and 4 (10%) needed revision intervention. In Group III, 5 (14.2%) hips needed revision intervention for residual dysplasia. The mean final AI was 24.6°in Group I, 28.2° in Group II and 26.3°in Group III. There was no significant difference in the final AI between the groups (p > 0.05).

      Conclusions

      An attempted closed reduction has a 50% failure rate, and we recommend a low threshold for open reduction. There is a 10% rate of re-dislocation following open reduction with or without additional bony procedure. About 50% of the dysplastic hips treated without pelvic osteotomy at the time of index procedure fail to remodel and have residual acetabular dysplasia.

      Keywords

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